PERU LNG is the first natural gas liquefaction plant in South America. Its installation makes Peru a leader in the energy industry. It is also the largest private investment in hydrocarbons in the country, amounting to 3,800 million USD. PERU LNG’s great magnitude demonstrates that Peru is an attractive destination for large investments. PERU LNG elevates the positioning of Peru within the international community in terms of investor confidence and economic development possibilities.
PERU LNG is an engine for economic development and job creation. During the peak period of the construction phase, PERU LNG employed over 20,000 Peruvian workers in the installation of the gas pipeline and in the construction of the LNG plant. During the three years of the construction phase, Peruvian professionals and technicians participated in intense training programs that complemented the transfer of technology and knowledge for an unprecedented industry in the country.
During the construction phase (2006-2010), PERU LNG generated a cumulative impact of 2% on GDP growth.
PERU LNG is a Peruvian company formed by four of the leading companies in the global energy industry: Hunt Oil (United States), SK Innovation (South Korea), Shell (Netherlands) and Marubeni (Japan).
PERU LNG liquefied natural gas plant is located at kilometer 163 of the South Pan-American Highway, south of Lima.
Liquefied natural gas is liquid state natural gas obtained by cooling natural gas to -163°C. It is an odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, non-toxic, environmentally friendly liquid. Cooling the gas facilitates its transportation over long distances by reducing it 600 times its volume.
The operation consists of three components: a 408 kilometer gas pipeline, a cryogenic processing plant with two storage tanks, and a maritime terminal.
The PERU LNG project, consisting of a gas processing plant, a gas transportation pipeline and a port terminal, was built under diverse construction contracts, among which the most important were engineering, supply and construction (ESC) contracts with the companies of Chicago Bridge & Iron (CB&I) group for the plant, Techint S.A.C for the pipeline, and CDB Consortium, integrated by Odebrecht, Saipem and Jan de Nul companies, for the port terminal. Construction activities took approximately 4 years, from 2006 until the plant's inauguration on June 10, 2010.
Among the main contractors during the construction phase were CB&I, responsible for the construction of the plant; CDB, responsible for the construction of the maritime terminal; and Techint, which installed the gas pipeline. In addition, dozens of Peruvian subcontractors participated in the construction, such as Graña y Montero, Cosapi, Translei, Minera San Martin, Cosmos, Aceros Arequipa, Técnicas Metálicas, Esmetal and Sima, among others.
The first shipment was made on June 22, 2010.
The LNG cargoes destination is determined by Shell International Trading Middle East (SITME) company.
Natural gas, which is transported to the plant for liquefaction.
Natural gas is a clean fuel composed basically of methane and ethane, which is found at great depths in the earth, has no odor, no color, is lighter than air and does not mix with water. It has become one of the most demanded energy sources along with hydropower. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel available. It produces fewer emissions and pollutants than coal or oil.
No, although in both cases we have a fluid in a gaseous state, there are certain differences between the two. Next, we detail the main differences:
- The gas that comes in domestic propane gas is known as LPG or liquefied petroleum gas, which is mainly composed of propane, which is a heavier gas than air.
- The gas that comes in domestic propane gas (LPG) is pressurized between 60 to 120 psi of pressure (similar to the pressure that inflates the tires of cargo trucks) and flavored with a chemical agent that gives it the characteristic smell of "rotten egg" to facilitate its detection in homes.
On the other hand...
- Natural gas is composed primarily of methane, which is a lighter fluid than air.
- Natural gas transported through the pipeline is pressurized to very high pressure, in some cases exceeding 2000 psi of pressure, 20 times more pressure than a truck tire. In addition, the natural gas transported by PERU LNG does not contain any flavoring agent.
The natural gas transported through the pipeline is pressurized at very high pressure, in some cases exceeding 2000 psi of pressure, 20 times more pressure than the tire of a cargo truck. Therefore, it is not possible to make a connection to the pipeline to supply homes directly. This situation is very similar to the high and medium voltage electrical transmission lines, which carry a lot of energy through the cables and in order to be able to use this energy, it must first pass through electrical substations to be suitable for domestic use at 220 volts.
For this reason, the State has designated other companies that are in charge of the adequacy of the conditions of natural gas so that it can be distributed to consumers (homes and businesses) in a safe way.
Liquefied natural gas is obtained by purifying natural gas and cooling it to a temperature of -163°C. Through this cooling process, the natural gas is transformed into liquid, which reduces its volume by 600 times.
Natural gas can be transported through pipelines from the production area to consumers at relatively close distances. However, installing and maintaining a natural gas pipeline over long distances is not economically efficient. If we reduce the volume of natural gas by turning it into liquid, it can be transported over long distances in LNG tanker ships or trucks.
In case of a leak, LNG upon contact with water at room temperature forms a very thin layer of ice on the surface until the LNG raises its temperature and evaporates. LNG does not mix or sink in water. Additionally, it does not remain too long in a liquid state on the surface as to cover living species or objects. No cleaning operation is required because the rapid evaporation of LNG leaves no residue.
It is unlikely that an accidental release of LNG generates a fire, as LNG evaporates almost instantly and, since it is lighter than air, it is rapidly dispersed.
The total plot area is of 521 hectares (5.21 km²). The plant occupies 50 hectares.
PERU LNG installed a 34” diameter gas pipeline with an extension of 408 km, from the point of interconnection with the existing TGP gas pipeline in Chiquintirca, San Miguel de la Mar, Ayacucho to the LNG plant. The installation of PERU LNG gas pipeline began in 2007 and concluded in early 2010.
The gas pipeline appears in the Guinness Book of Records as the world's highest gas pipeline, at an altitude of 4,901 meters above sea level.
Transportation through pipelines is the safest way to take this type of fuel from the extraction wells to the city so that it can then be distributed to homes by the corresponding companies. The PERU LNG pipeline has had no failures (0 failures) in its more than 10 years of operation.
The maritime terminal consists of a 1.3 km pier, a berth for cargo ships, a 300-meter-wide dredged navigation channel, and an 800-meter-long breakwater to allow the safe shipment of LNG in tanker ships.
During the construction phase, approximately 20,000 direct and indirect jobs were created. In 2009 alone, during the peak of the construction phase, PERU LNG employed 10,675 workers, 90% of which were Peruvians.
All the unskilled labor required during the construction phase was contracted in the communities and localities in the areas of direct influence. Over 5,600 workers were contracted in Chincha and Cañete, and more than 4,000 in the communities located along the route of the gas pipeline.
It is important to note that more than 50% of the Peruvian labor force employed during the construction phase consisted of skilled workers. This project has been made possible thanks to the work of the Peruvian workers.
For the plant operation, PERU LNG trained in alliance with TECSUP, the first group of LNG plant operators in South America, consisting of 48 Peruvian workers who obtained international certification in 2009.
The project was designed and built according to the highest standards of the LNG industry worldwide.
Processes and equipment are monitored for a safe, efficient operation and an environmentally acceptable noise level. PERU LNG has training programs and security measures which are fully met. There are preventive and corrective procedures, and a permanent communication between operators, workers and local communities.
There are contingency plans to minimize the possible occurrence of incidents and to ensure a timely and effective response. These plans also ensure that related incidents and risks are properly communicated to communities, government organizations and to all those responding to an emergency.
The supervisory body charged by the State to verify the actions of PERU LNG is OSINERGMIN. In this case, OSINERGMIN frequently verifies that PERU LNG complies with all the requirements established in the Hydrocarbon Pipeline Transportation Regulation, which was approved by Supreme Decree 081-2007-EM, as well as with applicable international standards.
In addition, PERU LNG proactively conducts internal audits by specialized consultants who verify that the operation and maintenance of the pipeline are carried out in compliance with industry best practices.
Natural gas is lighter than air. In the hypothetical case of a leak, the natural gas would dissipate rapidly under normal weather conditions. There are no risks related to skin contact, absorption through the skin, contact with the eyes or ingestion.
PERU LNG develops a series of social and environmental investment initiatives to fulfill its commitment of improving the well-being of communities in the areas of direct influence and to sustainably benefit local populations. These programs are developed based on the needs of the communities, the same that are identified through participatory processes with the support of the population. Its purpose is to contribute to the improvement of the productive capacity of farmers and ranchers, the training of fishermen, the strengthening of local management skills, the improving of health and education conditions, and the promoting of the care and conservation of the environmental and natural resources.
Constant meetings are held with authorities, organizations, institutions and representatives of the population in order to report the activities of the company. Local media are also used, such as radio stations and/or the press. Community members and the general public communicate with the company through telephone calls, website or by visiting the offices of PERU LNG in Lima, Cañete, Chincha or Huamanga.
PERU LNG has four Environmental and Social Impact Studies (ESIS) that were approved in 2006. These studies were carried out before any construction activity, in order to identify, prevent and interpret the possible social and environmental impacts that the project would have. The ESIS were presented in public hearings and were commented on by the population and their representatives. All information on the Environmental and Social Impact Studies can be found on PERU LNG’s website: www.perulng.com
PERU LNG not only meets high national and international environmental standards, such as the performance standards on social and environmental sustainability of the IFC (financial arm of the World Bank) and the environmental policy of the IDB, but also implements a series of additional environmental conservation programs. An exemplary program is the Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (BMAP), which consists of a series of specific plans and programs for each place and each species, intended to protect the natural resources that are located near the pipeline, plant and maritime terminal.
PERU LNG has carried out a series of works prior to the construction, in order to identify and avoid archaeological sites along the area comprising the plant and the gas pipeline. All findings were saved for further scientific investigation. In the case of those sites found by archaeological monitors during construction, the work was stopped until the rescue excavations were completed. All the work was performed under the supervision of the National Institute of Culture (now Ministry of Culture), the Peruvian government entity in charge, and the recovered pieces and information were delivered to that institution.
PERU LNG and the National Institute of Culture (INC, in Spanish) worked together to develop detailed studies and publications about the preserved materials. Also, exhibitions of the findings were organized in museums of Lima and Ayacucho to contribute to the knowledge of the national culture.
PERU LNG was funded with 2,250 million USD granted by international entities and private Peruvian institutions. The international funding came from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank's International Finance Corporation (IFC), Export-Import Bank of the United States, Export-Import Bank of Korea, Italian Export Credit Agency (SACE), Société Générale, BBVA, Calyon, Sumimoto, ING, Mizuho and the Tokyo-Mitsubishi Bank. The successful placement of 200 million USD in bonds in the local market was added to this. In addition, shareholders made a capital contribution of 1,600 million USD. These institutions, in addition to providing financial support, also permanently audit the social and environmental performance of PERU LNG.
The total investment required to develop the entire project was approximately 3,800 million USD.